summary: Adopting at least one of four healthy eating patterns reduces the risk of dying from cardiovascular disease, cancer or respiratory disease.
A variety of healthy eating patterns are associated with a reduced risk of premature death, according to a new study by researchers at the Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health.
They found that participants who scored high on adherence to at least one of four healthy eating patterns were less likely to die during the study period from any cause and less likely to die from cardiovascular disease, cancer, or respiratory disease, compared to people with low. grades.
The results are consistent with the current Dietary Guidelines for America, which recommend multiple styles of healthy eating.
The Dietary Guidelines for Americans aims to provide science-based dietary advice that promotes good health and reduces major chronic diseases. Thus, it is critical to examine associations between dietary patterns recommended by the DGA and long-term health outcomes, especially mortality,” said corresponding author Frank Hu, Frederick J. Steer Professor of Nutrition and Epidemiology and chair of the Department of Nutrition.
The study will be published online on January 9, 2023 at JAMA Internal Medicine.
Few studies have evaluated whether greater adherence to the dietary patterns recommended by the DGA is associated with long-term risks of overall mortality and all-cause mortality. The researchers used health data collected over 36 years from 75,230 women participating in the Nurses’ Health Study and 44,085 men in the Health Professionals Follow-up Study.
All participants were free of cardiovascular disease or cancer at the start of the study and completed dietary questionnaires every four years. Their information was scored based on each of the four dietary pattern indices (Healthy Eating Index 2015, Alternative Mediterranean Diet, Healthy Plant-Based Diet Index, and Alternative Healthy Eating Index).
They all share key ingredients including whole grains, fruits, vegetables, nuts, and legumes, though other ingredients vary with different eating styles.
A higher score on at least one indicator was associated with a lower risk of premature death from all causes, and from cardiovascular disease, cancer and respiratory disease. Higher AMED and AHEI scores were associated with a lower risk of death from neurological disease. The results were consistent for non-Hispanic white people, Hispanic blacks, and Hispanic people.
The current DGA (2015-2020) recommends multiple adaptable healthy eating styles Individual food traditions and preferences. An updated version of the guidelines is released every five years by the Departments of Health and Human Services (HHS) and Department of Agriculture (USDA).
“It is important to assess adherence to eating patterns and health outcomes recommended by the DGA, including mortality, so that timely updates can be made,” Hu said. “Our findings will be valuable to the 2025-2030 Dietary Guidelines Advisory Committee, which is being formed to assess the current evidence surrounding different eating styles and health outcomes.”
Other co-authors of the Harvard Chan School of Study include Zhili Chan, Fengli Wang, Yanping Li, Megu Baden, Shilpa Bhupathiraju, Dong Wang, Ki Sun, Eric Rimm, Lu Qi, Fred Tapong, Edward Giovannucci, Walter Willett, Joan Manson, and Qibin Qi.
Funding: Funding for the study came from grant R01HL060712 from the NHLBI. The Nurses’ Health Studies and Health Professionals Follow-up Studies are supported by grants UM1 CA186107, P01 CA87969, R01 CA49449, R01 HL034594, R01 HL088521, U01 CA176726, R01 CA67262, U01 CA167552, R01 HL35464, and U01 N14538. Q. Qi is supported by grants K01HL129892 and R01 HL140976 from the NHLBI and grants R01 DK119268 and R01 DK120870 from the National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases. F. Wang is supported by Postdoctoral Fellowship Grant 897161 from the American Heart Association.
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author: Todd Datz
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“Healthy eating patterns and risks of overall and cause-specific mortalityBy Zhilei Shan et al. JAMA Internal Medicine
Healthy eating patterns and risks of overall and cause-specific mortality
The current Dietary Guidelines for Americans recommend several healthy eating patterns. However, few studies have examined the associations of adherence to different dietary patterns with long-term risks of overall mortality and all-cause mortality.
To examine the associations of dietary scores for four healthy eating patterns with risk of overall and cause-specific mortality.
Design, preparation and participants
This prospective cohort study initially included healthy women from the Nurses’ Health Study (NHS; 1984-2020) and men from the Health Professionals Follow-up Study (HPFS; 1986-2020).
Healthy Eating Index 2015 (HEI-2015), Alternative Mediterranean Diet (AMED), Healthy Vegetarian Diet Index (HPDI), and Alternative Healthy Eating Index (AHEI).
Main findings and measures
The main outcomes were overall and overall cause-specific mortality stratified by race, ethnicity and other potential risk factors.
The final study sample included 75,230 NHS women (medium [SD] baseline age, 50.2 [7.2] years) and 44 085 HPFS men (mean [SD] base age, 53.3 [9.6] years). During a total of 3,559 056 person-years of follow-up, 31,263 women and 22,900 men died. When comparing the highest quintile with the lowest quintile, the pooled multivariate-adjusted HR for total mortality was 0.81 (95% CI, 0.79–0.84) for the HEI-2015, 0.82 (95% CI, 0.79–0.84) for the AMED score, 0.86 (95% CI). , 0.83–0.89) for HPDI, and 0.80 (95% CI, 0.77–0.82) for AHEI (s< .001 for trend for all). All diet scores were inversely associated with death from cardiovascular disease, cancer, and respiratory disease. AMED score and AHEI were inversely associated with mortality from neurodegenerative disease. Inverse associations between these scores and risk of death were consistent in different racial and ethnic groups, including Hispanic, non-Hispanic, and non-Hispanic white individuals.
Conclusions and relevance
In this cohort study of two large prospective cohorts with up to 36 years of follow-up, greater adherence to different healthy eating patterns was consistently associated with a lower risk of overall and cause-specific mortality. These findings support the Dietary Guidelines for Americans’ recommendations that multiple healthy eating patterns can be tailored to individual dietary traditions and preferences.